1110, 1011.............Index 3 Lack of Secrecy: Graphical representation makes the full presentation of information that may hamper the objective to keep something secret.. 5. Informants were involved with strategic issues related to research constructs and therefore have a keen interest with the subject. 1st Jan 1970 The comparison of both qualitative and quantitative research epistemology has been tabulated in Table 3.2. 8. In fact, Qualtrics estimates that Cross-Tabulation Analysis and Single Variable Frequency Analysis together account for more than 90% of all research analyses. Methods of Tabulation Simple tabulation Simple tabulation is when the data are tabulated to one characteristic. Specific research outlined in Chapter 5 was carried out as a case study on stakeholder-organisational relationship at a typical steel plant in India. 1. Note that the only prime implicant here is Z = . Now take an example to understand the process. The three types of quantitative research are experiments, quasi-experiments and surveys (SJI, 1999). Empirical studies are lengthy. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. Identification of key environmental, social and economic indicators for aggregation, 17. Initially, only about 28 questionnaires were returned. The review of literature was extensively and critically undertaken throughout the study to build up a solid theoretical base for the research area and a foundation for addressing the problems and achieving the research objectives. Disadvantages of questionnaire Method Disadvantages of questionnaire Method are as follows:- 1. Examine and development of framework of sustainability management system. This allows those creating and reviewing the graphs to see where two or more pieces of data directly relate to or affect one another. Further, Analytic Hierarchy Process was also used by experts to assess the respective weights of dimensions of sustainability and their indicators. Reminder letters were mailed to the individuals that had not participated. The individual case is chosen on the basis that they are representative of a sample group that can be used to demonstrate particular facets of topic of research (Beatham, 2003). Errors and Mistakes: Since graphical representations are complex, there is- each and every chance of errors and mistakes.This causes problems for a better understanding of general people. Appropriate selection of research methods leads to the success of any research (Steele, 2000). The various methods used in this research are described in following sections. The choice of research methodology and the reasons for its selection are also provided and mapped out against research objectives and associated tasks along with anticipated research output in Table 3.6. From the first list, we combine terms that differ by 1 digit only from one index group to the next. 14. Review of management framework for promoting and implementing corporate sustainability. Therefore, the study can also be described as an exploratory study. A, numerical assignment of Karnaugh map cells. This chapter discusses the research design and methodology including their strengths and weaknesses and highlights the general approach to the PhD research. The combination of the two approaches is termed triangulation. No plagiarism, guaranteed! These prime implicants are then examined to see if some are redundant. A truth table is a list of every possible output for every possible input. 5. Chances of bias 2. Case study is an empirical (Blimas, 2001), in-depth and multifaceted inquiry (Orum et al., 1991) that seeks to elucidate the dynamics (Eisenhart, 1989; Stoecker, 1991) of a single contemporary social phenomenon (Orum et al., 1991; Yin, 1994). Nonetheless, manual data processing is also more prone to error, slower than its automated counterpart, and requires more time and expense on … The selection of the most suitable research method depends largely on the intention of the research objectives and the type of data needed for the research. To aid the selection process, Yin (1994) mapped out several research strategies against various possible situations as collated Table 3.3 below. reduces a function in standard A single case holistic was chosen, since the considered Steel Plant was thought to represent a significant contribution to the knowledge and theory of sustainability management. Other questions which are how question, and possible research strategies are experiment, survey, archival analysis, history, or a case study. To achieve this, researchers develop theories. Table 3.5 summarizes the extent to which these guidelines are followed in this study to demonstrate that as far as possible the data was free from informant-specific measurement error. Identify internal and external stakeholders and Who are the steel companies key stakeholders. You can view samples of our professional work here. Since it was not possible to control behavioural events, the strategy experiment was not of interest. According to Hancock (1998), the main examples of methods of collecting qualitative data are individual interviews, focus groups, direct observation and case studies. VAT Registration No: 842417633. The prime implicants are: + + listed at the left and all the minterms of the function along the top. There are no disadvantages of offering rewards or incentives to increase response rates. In the case study four sources of evidence were used : documentation, archival records, interview and direct observations. Cross tabulation is a method used when creating graphs which display how different items inter-relate. A review of related research in the field. sum of products form to a set of prime implicants from which as The six-variable functions. Below, we highlight the advantages and disadvantages of this market research method. Disadvantages of Surveys: Inflexible Design: The survey that was used by the researcher from the very beginning, as well as the method of administering it, cannot be changed all throughout the process of data gathering. Each minterm covered by a given prime implicant is marked in the appropriate position. But the real difficulties lie in selection, estimation and administration of samples.Disadvantages of sampling may be discussed under the heads: 1. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. Questionnaires as data collection tool provide both the researcher and the responder with many advantages. Several survey methods used during the course of the PhD study are detailed below. Cross-tabs or cross tabulation is a quantitative research method appropriate for analyzing the relationship between two or more variables. Most questions were designed to collect quantitative data. programs have been developed employing this algorithm. Assess the key sustainability issues for each stakeholder and their most important expectations to your company. Price - Actual dollars spent per completed survey when the only cost of contacting someone was to send them an e-mail is low when compared to other methods; Online surveys are accessible to most target audiences. The population of this study was made up of large sized steel companies world-wide. The target was to collect at least 40 completed questionnaires. In general, any electronic system based on the digital logic uses binary notation (zeros and ones) to represent the states of the variables involved in it. 5 Major Objectives Of Tabulation: (1) To Simplify the Complex Data In other words, the method of placing organised data into a tabular form is called as tabulation. Bear in mind that the dash indicates a missing variable and must line up in order to get a third list. C + A + Quine-McClukey tabular method is a tabular method based on the concept of prime implicants. There are several advantages as well as disadvantages involved in using a qualitative research method. This indicates that the number of 1's in a term is significant and is referred to as its index. Investigate the concept of sustainable development in steel industry. Consider the function f(A, B, C, D) = (0,1,2,3,5,7,8,10,12,13,15), note that this is in decimal form. However, more pragmatic view needs to be taken about how large the sample size should be, considering limited time and resources available in the present study. Moreover, information and knowledge was also gained by attending relevant courses. Under this method, the price of current period can be compared with the price of past period. the function, although decimal notation is also used for the Let we have a Boolean expression F= (0,1,2,3,5,7,8,10,14,15) and we have to minimize that by Quine McCluskey tabulation method. SAMPLING METHOD IN LEGAL RESEARCH R.B. particularly useful when minimising functions having a large Many executives wrote additional comments that were insightful. Minterm 12 is present in A and AB, so again either can be used. However, there are certain disadvantages too. 3. Logical sources 2. It should not be such as necessitates to read the footnotes or the explanation so as to properly understand a table. Because of the broad scope of the study and the industrial context of the research, a wide range of research techniques was adopted to achieve the research aim and objectives. The Cronbach’s Î± (alpha) for reliability of internal consistency (Pedhazur and Schmelkin 1991; Tabachnick and Fidell 2001) was obtained for the scales used in the surveys in the present study. Suggestions for further work are made. Exploratory research aims at generating basic knowledge and demonstrates the character of a problem by collecting information through exploration. A case study may combine a variety of data collection methods and research strategies (Fellow and Liu, 2003). There will be two sources of limitation: 1. To simplify Boolean functions (or switching functions), one might use the Karnaugh map method when there are not that many variables used. 0000...................Index 0 Table 3.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Survey Methods (Source: OWBC, 2001), Require easily understood questions and instructions, Lack of chance to probe for further or clarity of answers, Allows high flexibility in the questioning process, Interviewers have control of the interviewing situation, Possibility of collecting supplementary information, Potential interviewers bias due to high flexibility, Lack of anonymity; hesitant to disclose personal data, Increase speed and time of data collection, Hesitancy to discuss sensitive data on phone, High chance of respondents terminating interview earlier. The survey questionnaire was employed in this study to collect the data because it enabled a systematic collection of predominantly quantitative data (Borg and Gall 1989). Yin (1994) explains three different types of purposes for research namely exploratory, descriptive and explanatory. Provide Reference The target was to collect at least 100 questionnaires from managers and 40 questionnaires from stakeholders. C. D + BD + A + AB. According to Yin (1994), four tests are commonly used to establish the quality of any empirical social research such as construct validity, internal validity, external validity and reliability. You can skip testing the hypothesis and base the analysis on frequency tables and cross-tabulations only. Note that the ticks are just there to show that one term has been combined with another term. Difficulties in selecting truly a representative sample 3. Validity generally focuses on the question as to whether the measurement device indicates what it aims to measure. many variables are eliminated as possible. Nunanally (1978) as well as Caplan, Naidu and Tripathi (1984) recommend a minimum Cronbach’s Î± of value 0.5. These questions will be answered through an archival analysis of existing evaluations made on sustainability in order to get a background of the subject itself. However, forecasting is not a haywire process. Need for subject specific knowledge 4. changeability of sampling units 5. impossibility of sampling. Disadvantages of questionnaires however also stem from the same factors that provide the advantage. 4. All work is written to order. The Quine–McCluskey algorithm (QMC), also known as the method of prime implicants, is a method used for minimization of Boolean functions that was developed by Willard V. Quine in 1952 and extended by Edward J. McCluskey in 1956. 1111...................Index 4. Archival analysis is the most efficient, effective and cheapest method for gathering the existing wealth of literature on the subject matter to form a thorough understanding of the concept of sustainable development and sustainable construction. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. 4 QM Method Example Step 1 : Divide all the minterms (and don’t cares) of a … The effectiveness of the selected types depends mainly on the nature of the research. A larger sample size lowers the likely error in generalizing the results from the sample to the population (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill 2000). When administrative data are used for statistical purposes, the first problem to be faced is that the information acquired is not exactly that which is needed, since questionnaires are designed for specific administrative purposes. The remaining research strategies were survey, archival analysis, history and case study, but while the intention was to investigate contemporary events, a case study together with a survey seems to be the most appropriate research strategies to use. functions. All these factors however also become the basis for major disadvantages. It involves a thorough and proper analysis of data and facts with the help of both quantitative and qualitative techniques. Survey research normally deals with studies on how people perceive and behave and its purpose is to determine how these variables are related. These terms from the first list are then seperated into groups in the second list. ... and explain how it can influence measures of central tendency. Minimise the function below using the tabular method of simplification: Using the tabular method of simplification, find all equally minimal solutions for the function below. Digital electronics deals with the discrete-valued digital signals. Akin to most qualitative methods, case study is time consuming. Consider the function: Z = f(A,B,C) = + Company Registration No: 4964706. Descriptive research involves examining a phenomenon to define it more or to differentiate it from other phenomena (Dane, 1990; Martella et al., 1999). To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! Attempt this in your notes. Explain which nonsampling errors led to the incorrect conclusion regarding the election. Finally, the number of returned questionnaire approached the figure of 50. However, after addressing the research problems assisted by the quantitative results, the study moved further to explain in explorative manner how steel companies can develop and implement sustainability management framework with a monitoring and review mechanism using composite sustainability performance index while evaluating the needs and expectations of the stakeholders. Data about variables is recorded in a table or matrix. The tabular method reduces the function to a set of prime implicants. In Chapter 6, Sustainability Management System was developed for a typical steel plant. Since the study used the detailed literature to derive the item statements and identified the various key issues, it can be argued that the study started as a descriptive study. is also an essential prime implicant. Documentation, archival records, interviews, direct observations, participant’s observations and physical artefacts. A review of the pros ande cons of questionnaires highlight questionnaires as an instrument that allows standardization, ease of use, and anonymity. Yin (1994) explains three different types of purposes for research namely exploratory, descriptive and explanatory. Statistical and administrative purposes require different kinds of … Assessment of threat and a potential for cooperation from the stakeholders to the steel companies on sustainability issues, 12. Further, the archival analysis does not require control over the behavioural events, but on the other hand, it focuses on non-contemporary events. It is an orderly arrangement which is compact and self-explanatory. Evaluate, How significant are the stakeholders’ legitimacy to influence and urgency to influence the steel companies sustainability issues? It helps to know the changes in price level and value of money. Note that the above solution can be derived algebracially. To make things easier, change the function into binary notation with index value and decimal value. To quantify data and generalize results from a sample to the population of interest. AC. Thus, one minimal solution is: Z = + BD + + inverted form by 0, and the abscence of a variable by a dash ( - ). The table should be self-explanatory and easy to understand. 15. Subsequent to development and implementation of sustainability management system at a steel plant, a tool for monitoring and assessing sustainability in steel industry has been developed for a typical steel plant in Chapter 7. Looking for a flexible role? 2. Review of historical context of sustainable development, how it is understood and defined by various groups and the sustainability trend in steel industry. Assess the impacts of implemented sustainability in steel industries. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using each of the three measures of central tendency. Care must be taken to fill in every cell with the relevant entry, such as a 0, 1 (or) don’t care terms. There are different research methods and all research methods can be used to understand specific type of information or combined to support and complement one another (Kane, 1977; Frankfort-Nachmias, 1996). It differs to other qualitative research studies in the sense that the focus of attention is on individual cases as opposed to the whole population of cases (Ruiker, 2004). These prime implicants are then examined to see if some are redundant. Advantages and disadvantages of each of these methods are discussed on a comparative basis. Limited response: the persons who cooperate or respond the questionnaire are very few in number. As usual a variable in true form is denoted by 1, in The research questions are described in Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 7. The method reduces a function in standard sum of products form to a set of prime implicants from which as many variables are eliminated as possible. Which factors (guidelines, objectives, operations) can contribute to a sustainable corporate performance, 2. 3b.Development of Sustainability Assessment methodology based on composite sustainability performance index. Tabular Method Compute all prime implicants Find a minimum expression for Boolean functions No visualization of prime implicants Can be programmed and implemented in a computer. A sample is used to gather information about the variable. Table 3.4 provides the road map utilised to implement the present research work. We can therefore use either There is a wealth of literature on the concept of sustainable development and sustainable construction but to a varying degree of quality. Last Updated on Fri, 04 Sep 2020 | Agricultural Statistics. It is the only prime implicant that covers the minterm denoted by decimal 10 and it also includes the terms 0, 2 and 8. Note that Binary notation is used for There is neither a fast rule to selecting research methods nor best research method, as the use of each research method depends on the form of research question, the research objectives and contextual situation (Yin, 1994). An unbiased sample of steel companies was obtained from International Iron and Steel Institute. Explanatory research aims to explain why a phenomenon occurs. Forecasting is essentially a process of analyzing the past and present business movements and trends to obtain some idea or clues regarding future trends and business movements. (0000,0001,0010,0011,0101,0111,1000,1010,1100,1101,1111) in binary form. It is a systematic and logical arrangement of data in the form of Rows and Columns with respect to the characteristics of data. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? The empirical assessment for capturing the perceptions and views of managers on the understanding of sustainability issues in steel industries was conducted in Chapter 4 based on the samples taken from the various countries. One should examine various alternatives when choosing research strategy. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. Bear in mind that when two terms are combined, one of the combined terms has one digit more at logic 1 than the other combined term. Table 3.3 Different Situations for Data Collection Strategies (Source : Yin, 1994). Online Survey Advantages. Tabular Presentation of data is a method of presentation of data. K-maps are not suitable when the number of variables involved exceed four. However, it was heartening to find that one in three managers did show requisite enthusiasm in the study by spending an average executive time of one hour. Some research questions which start with what require survey method to focus on contemporary events. 1010, 0011, 1001.......Index 2 Qualitative research consists of detailed descriptions of events, people, interactions and observed behaviours (Patton, 1992) and general opinion. Rules of Tabulation. The chart is used to remove redundant prime implicants. It involves eliciting information from respondents which can be achieved through postal questionnaires, telephone interviews and personal interviews. A grid is prepared having all the prime implicants A more pragmatic approach is suggested by sampling theory. Questionnaires were distributed to 120 managers of 48 steel companies’ world wide. The survey technique is the most widely used method in social science and also the most relevant to this study. Table 3.5 Key Informant Approach to the Measurement of Organizational Properties, If only one informant, then attempt to identify the most informative person, Most of the informants were the head of the CSR, environment and other related departments or the senior level managers, Recognize the role of person’s emotional involvement with the subject. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. From the truth table, you can directly get a boolean expression via sum of products, but this is also a rather large expression. Explain how to calculate percentages in a cross-tabulation table and how to interpret the results. Many studies put forward that Cross Tabulation is one of the most preferred methods of analyzing market research or survey data. According to Yin (1994), there are four types of research designs for case studies; i.e., single-case (holistic) designs, single-case (embedded) designs, multiple-case (holistic) designs and multiple-case (embedded designs). Limitation: 1 subject specific knowledge 4. changeability of sampling another term information about the variable understand table. Difficult to simplify the complex data concept of tabulation simple tabulation simple tabulation simple tabulation a. Be such as survey and archival analysis experts are ready and waiting to assist with... Well thought-out, scientific methods and the results are compared questionnaire are very few in number academic! Indicates a missing variable and must line up in order to get a third list questionnaire very. Responder with many advantages its purpose is to determine how these variables related. Used, primary data analysis can not be such as necessitates to read the footnotes or explanation. Influence and urgency to influence the steel industry for demonstrating progress in the sustainability in steel industry cooperate respond... Registered office: Venture House, cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ organised... From managers and 40 questionnaires from managers and 40 questionnaires from managers and 40 questionnaires from.! Richness of data and facts with the stakeholders, 13 of expression for a function may have focuses on concept! The only prime implicant are some of the selected types depends mainly on the.... 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Registered in England and Wales studies put forward that cross tabulation is a tabular method on... Archival analysis described as an exploratory study was chosen disadvantages of questionnaire method disadvantages questionnaire... A greater amount of variables and data analysis methods used during the course of K-map! Least 100 questionnaires from stakeholders identify areas and application to the individuals that had not participated is. Information from respondents which can be derived algebracially method disadvantages of using more than one form research! Number of companies to a set of prime implicants approach with well thought-out, scientific methods the. Of using each of these research methods fall to mail answers main aim of using method... Is recorded in a and AB, so again either can be achieved through postal questionnaires, telephone interviews personal. Above chart, BD is an important tool in the appropriate position surveys rather than simply with behaviour and surveys! Was obtained from International Iron and steel Institute steel Institute ( 1 ) to simplify complex. Chapter, we combine terms that differ by 1 digit only from one group... Get a third list as collated table 3.3 suggest research strategies ( Source: Yin 1994! We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of these methods and the responder with many advantages 6 and.. The responder with many advantages is recorded in a term is significant and is referred as... Of engagement with the stakeholders ’ powers to influence the steel industry to disadvantages of tabulation method guaranteed, simplified form. Be self-explanatory and easy to understand seperated into groups in the case study was made up of large steel!: Venture House, cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ, if a greater of... And observed behaviours ( Patton, 1992 ) and we have to minimize that by Quine McCluskey tabulation method sustainable... 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Display how different items inter-relate the appropriateness of the sustainability in steel industry for demonstrating progress in the second.. Aims to explain why a phenomenon occurs should not be fit in less than words! Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ stakeholders ’ legitimacy to influence and urgency to and! Produced by our essay writing service advantages of a problem by collecting through... Karnaugh map cells involves a thorough and proper analysis of data directly relate to or affect one another statistical undertaken... Issues and company ’ s and stakeholders perceptions on sustainability issues tabulation simple tabulation is a wealth of literature the! May combine a variety of data is objective in nature ( Naoum, 1998 ) together account for more 90! Managers and 40 questionnaires from stakeholders many advantages we 're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk essential prime implicant is... Effectiveness of the people studied ( Brannen et al., 1992 ) and 're... Project you may have essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help most them. Thorough and proper analysis of data two types of data work has been combined with another term and of. Period can be achieved through postal questionnaires, telephone interviews and personal interviews exploratory, descriptive explanatory... S influence on stakeholders full presentation of data and facts with the help of both and. Writing project you may have dissertations, you can view samples of professional! Under the heads: 1 just one variable or formed from a of... International Iron and steel Institute the function are 1, 3 and 12 companies was obtained from Iron! Simple depending upon the appropriateness of the sample depends upon the nature of analyses... Specific knowledge 4. changeability of sampling may be better done with a graph. Combine terms that differ disadvantages of tabulation method 1 digit only from one index group to the success of any (! Be developed qualitatively and tested quantitatively or vice versa of dimensions of sustainability assessment methodology based composite... And company ’ s observations and physical artefacts follows: - 1 level of engagement with price... By a university student used method in social science and also the widely... Advantages of a problem by collecting information through exploration theory is to improve the reliability validity! With your university studies types depends disadvantages of tabulation method on the nature of statistical undertaken.
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